We recently discussed the ins and outs of .38 Special ammunition for snubby revolvers here in these pages, and described the challenges involved with trying to make the most special of revolver cartridges perform from abbreviated barrels, which rob velocity and energy from the bullet. As a moderate energy level cartridge, the .38 Special doesn’t have a surplus of energy that it can afford to lose, and when you shoot it in the small guns, it can lose just enough energy to have a dramatic effect on terminal performance.
Because the .38 Special doesn’t give ammunition companies a whole lot to work with, they have to make very deliberate choices to eke out the best performance from this cartridge. Bullet weights, materials, designs, hardness, and velocities all have to be carefully tailored to obtain the best performance, particularly from a smaller gun. To date, the tradeoffs associated with these choices have dictated that most of the .38 Special loads which expand well, don’t tend to penetrate very deeply in industry-standard test mediums. Conversely, the ones that can be relied upon to penetrate deeply, don’t tend to expand.
Expanding the envelope
The engineers at Federal are smart guys though, and always eager to tackle unique challenges like this. In the past several years, we’ve seen them tinkering with the old .38 Special quite a bit, releasing new loads for their Personal Defense line such as the 130 grain, .38 Special +P HST Micro in 2017, and the 120 grain, .38 Special +P Punch in 2020. While these two bullets are very different in their design, materials, construction, cost, and target market, they’ve been well received by shooters.
Federal already had good .38 Special loads in these products, particularly the HST, but their work on another project opened up some new opportunities to address the delicate balance between penetration and expansion in a cartridge like the .38 Special. Based on the success of their new bullet design, they felt it was now possible to push the accepted bounds of .38 Special performance, and develop a .38 caliber bullet that would both reliably expand, and still penetrate to distances of at least 12 inches in bare, calibrated ballistic gelatin, and gelatin covered in clothing.
The 12-inch standard was important to them, because it represents the minimum acceptable penetration depth for a law enforcement duty round, according to the FBI’s protocol for testing ammunition. While the FBI’s standards are clearly designed to address law enforcement requirements, and a person could argue that 12 inches of ballistic gelatin penetration is an unnecessarily high bar for the typical snubby revolver engagement, there’s a number of folks who are so comfortable with the FBI’s 12-inch standard, they’re hesitant to carry a load that won’t meet it, regardless of mission.
Unfortunately, Federal didn’t have a .38 Special product that could do that reliably. Their premium .38 Special load, the .38 Special +P HST Micro, gets to (exactly) 12 inches in bare, calibrated gelatin, but the sizable expansion of the HST bullet (almost 1.7 times the original diameter, in bare gelatin) prevents it from going any deeper. This is unsurprising, considering the HST Micro bullet was designed to favor large expansion over deep penetration.
Surprisingly, adding FBI-standard Heavy Clothing in front of the gelatin doesn’t help the HST Micro to reach deeper. Many hollowpoints tend to penetrate further after going through heavy clothing, because their hollowpoint cavities fill with clothing fibers, and the bullets either under-expand, or fail to expand at all. This is not the case with the .38 Special +P HST Micro, however, which expands so nicely after FBI Heavy Clothing (about 0.677 inches in Federal’s testing—nearly 1.9 times the original diameter!), that it runs out of steam by 11.1 inches, according to testing done by Federal.
So, Federal had a round that expanded exceptionally well, and approached the FBI’s favored 12 inches of penetration, but it didn’t have a bullet that would reliably reach and exceed that distance after opening up. To fill this gap in the product line, they’d need to build a new bullet—a bullet that would give them close to the FBI’s required 1.5 times expansion, but also routinely penetrate beyond 12 inches in both bare, and heavy clothing-covered gelatin.
To do this, they turned to one of the most popular bullets ever invented for defensive use, Federal’s Hydra-Shok.
For several years, the team at Federal had already been engaged in updating the classic Hydra-Shok design, starting with the service calibers (like 9mm, .40 S&W, and .45 ACP). The intent of this work was to improve the classic Hydra-Shok’s ability to penetrate at least 12 inches in ballistic gelatin after upsetting to around 1.5 times the starting diameter—something which the old load did not always achieve.
The new formula was labeled Hydra-Shok Deep, reflecting its deep penetrating performance. While the HST would remain the premium law enforcement bullet in the Federal lineup, with its excellent expansion and optimum penetration in all stages of the FBI protocol, the Hydra-Shok Deep would offer a substantial improvement over the classic Hydra-Shok, which some law enforcement agencies had become stubbornly allegiant to. The Hydra-Shok Deep doesn’t expand as much as the HST, but it expands better than the classic Hydra-Shok bullet did, and penetrates appropriately into the 12-to-18-inch range (and optimum 14-to-16-inch range) outlined by FBI standards. In fact, the Hydra-Shok Deep boasts a 70% improvement over the classic Hydra-Shok bullet across all stages of the FBI protocol, according to Federal, and will be a much better choice for those agencies and officers who won’t give up the Hydra-Shok for the premium HST load.
After tackling the service calibers, the Federal team turned their attention to the .380 ACP version of the Hydra-Shok, which had become one of the longtime favorites in this caliber. While Federal had no intention of pitting the .380 ACP version against the full battery of FBI protocol stages, they were interested in improving its performance in the bare gelatin and heavy clothing stages of the protocol, which were most appropriate for the conditions where a .380 ACP would most likely be used.
They succeeded handily. Federal reports that in bare gelatin, the new .380 ACP Hydra-Shok Deep bullet, weighing 99 grains, penetrates to 13 inches and expands to 0.496 inches (about 1.4 times the original diameter). In FBI-standard Heavy Clothing, they say the same bullet penetrates to 13.5 inches, while expanding to 0.514 inches (about 1.45 times the original diameter).
This is exceptional performance from a .380 ACP bullet. By comparison, the classic, 90 grain, .380 ACP Hydra-Shok bullet–which was well-respected for its performance in the category–penetrates about 30% less in bare gelatin with only 3% larger diameter, and penetrates about 13% less in FBI-standard Heavy Clothing, while expanding 9% less. The next-best performing .380 ACP bullet from a competing brand penetrates 32% less in bare gelatin, while only gaining 5% in expansion, and in FBI-standard Heavy Clothing, it penetrates 19% less, and expands 6% less than the new .380 ACP Hydra-Shok Deep, according to Federal’s numbers.
This is important to us as RevolverGuys, because the .380 ACP and the .38 Special have a lot in common, from the standpoint of terminal ballistics. Both of these calibers are moderate energy cartridges, in which the performance traditionally drops off rapidly as you chamber them in shorter and shorter barrels. Shooting a .380 ACP in a compact auto delivers performance that is similar to shooting a .38 Special in a snubby revolver, so if the Federal team could dramatically enhance the .380 ACP’s performance with their Deep formula, then it was tempting to see if they could accomplish the same with the venerable .38 Special.
So, with the .380 auto project complete, the Federal guys turned their attention to the .38 Special version of the Hydra-Shok.
Back to the future
Ironically, this was a path that brought them full circle, as the Hydra-Shok family of cartridges originally started out as .38 Specials.
The Hydra-Shok design was created by Thomas J. “Tom” Burczynski. Burczynski was a technician at Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and studied mechanical engineering and metal fabrication techniques during his employment there. As an avid shooter and handloader, he had a strong interest in ballistics and some unique ideas about how to achieve better performance from handgun bullets.
After almost six years of work, Burczynski filed a patent application for his expanding bullet design in February of 1974. Burczynski’s patent (assigned US Patent Office number 3,881,421) was approved in May of 1975, and paved the way for him to join forces with a local businessman, and form the Hydra-Shok Corporation (derived from the term, “Hydraulic Shock”), where he served as Vice President.
Burczynski’s patented bullet design incorporated a hollowpoint cavity with a tapered post in the center of the cavity. The purpose of the post was to serve as a simple machine–a wedge which would redirect the fluid forces inside the hollowpoint cavity so they were focused on the interior walls, rather than the base of the cavity. By applying this outward, radial force to the cavity walls, the bullet would be forced to expand by hydraulic pressure quite early, even before the pressure inside the cavity peaked. As the bullet continued to penetrate the target, the annular forces inside the cavity would grow and accelerate the bullet’s expansion, increasing the bullet’s frontal area, so the bullet could damage more tissue and deliver more shock to the target. As the bullet mushroomed and curled away from the post, the post would stand firm and act as a penetrating probe at the front of the bullet, piercing new tissue as the bullet plowed forward.
Burczynski’s research showed that variations in the shape and size of the central post, as well as the size of the cavity’s opening, could be used to control the pace of bullet expansion. Over time, he discovered that a broad, conical post was most effective at redirecting forces, and, when used with a large cavity opening, could encourage even heavy and slow projectiles like the .44 Special and .45 ACP to expand rapidly. In contrast, bullets like the .38 Special often performed better with a tapered post, built with a hemispherical tip, in a smaller cavity opening. In this case, the smaller opening and hemispherical post slowed the rate of expansion just enough to allow adequate penetration from the smaller bullet. Burczynski found that the more efficient conical post would have opened the bullet up too soon, and the resulting drag would have limited penetration.
Burczynski’s prototype Hydra-Shok bullets were very promising, but he had two main technical problems that were preventing his newly-formed company from manufacturing them. The first was the lack of a robust die that would withstand the rigors of mass production. Since his bullet had a pointed ogive, the cylindrical die used to cold press the bullet had thin walls near the base, and they would crack prematurely. Despite diligent work at the drafting table, and the skillful work of his machinist uncle, Stan, Burczynski was unable to design a cylindrical die for a pointed ogive bullet that would go the distance.
The other problem is that his bullet making operation was set up around manual methods that didn’t translate well to mass production. He needed to create a system that would automatically eject the bullet from the machine after it had been formed and punched with the press. In the manual process used to create his prototype Hydra-Shoks, it had been necessary for Burczynski to manually free the bullet from the punch after striking it. This was OK for his small-scale R&D efforts, but it wouldn’t work for large-scale manufacture.
The latter problem proved easier to fix. Burczynski was soon able to design a system that safely ejected the bullet, using inertia, after the forming and punch operations were complete. As a result, the press’ operator was no longer required to manually remove it from the die.
The dies though, continued to be a problem. In an effort to resolve it, Burczynski sought outside help from industry expert Jerry Alberts, of the Alberts Corporation. Alberts was a talented tool and die maker who manufactured his own bullet making machines and ran a successful business manufacturing lead bullets. Alberts initially told Burczynski that it would be no problem to manufacture a set of suitable dies for him, but after several months of trying, he was forced to admit that he couldn’t find a solution, either. The punches he made for the ogive bullet were breaking too often, and the bullets were sticking to the post-forming punch so badly that they wouldn’t come free.
Alberts suggested to Burczynski that he should abandon the vexing ogive bullet and make a cylindrical one–a full wadcutter, with the patented post design. It would be easy to design and build the dies and punches necessary to manufacture a bullet like this, and it could easily be put into mass production.
The idea didn’t appeal to Burczynski, as he wanted to go with an ogive bullet for its better performance and compatibility with speedloaders, but he finally agreed to proceed with the idea, in order to get a product on the market. Thus, the first Hydra-Shok bullets looked like a .357 caliber, hollow-base wadcutter, with a small post in the center, instead of the pointed ogive bullets that Burczynski had planned. Alberts manufactured the 146 grain bullets for Burczynski, and they were loaded at a facility near the Hydra-Shok company headquarters in New York.
The loaded .38 Special ammunition was sold to distributors and to law enforcement agencies as the “Hydra-Shok Scorpion.” It didn’t last very long, because Burczynski was bound and determined to bring an ogive bullet with his patented post to market. He finally succeeded in designing an appropriate die, which would withstand the stress of high volume operations, and the wadcutter-shaped Scorpion quickly disappeared in favor of a .357 caliber, 125 grain, jacketed hollowpoint with an ogive profile. This bullet was quickly adopted by the U.S. Department of State, in both .38 Special and .357 Magnum loadings, starting around 1977. The so-called, .357 Magnum “State Department Loading” (SDL–alternatively, “Super Defense Load”) penetrated to 8.5 inches in 20% ballistic gelatin (a military standard which was adopted by several federal law enforcement agencies of the era) and expanded to between .55 and .60 caliber. It was the product that really put the Hydra-Shok Company on the map.
The State Department contracts (Burczynski was eventually awarded 13 different contracts to produce the SDL) generated lots of interest in the Hydra-Shok design, and led to requests from the FBI and others to supply them with ammunition. The Hydra-Shok Corporation couldn’t fulfill all these requests with their small manufacturing operation, and this led to Burczynski selling an exclusive license to Federal Cartridge to manufacture the Hydra-Shok product, around 1984.
Federal at bat
The timing couldn’t have been better for Federal. After the horrible, April 1986 FBI gunfight in Miami, the FBI hosted a series of Wound Ballistics Workshops that resulted in the FBI protocol for ammunition testing. The new protocol emphasized deeper penetration, and Federal’s new Hydra-Shok bullet was well-suited to meet the demands of the test.
In fact, the Federal Hydra-Shok did so well in FBI testing that it eventually became the preferred FBI duty load in multiple calibers. The Winchester OSM, 147 grain, 9mm JHP may have been the first 9mm load adopted by the FBI to replace its now-disfavored, 115 grain Winchester Silvertips, but the 147 grain, Federal Hydra-Shok soon replaced that load in FBI service, and Hydra-Shoks became the Bureau’s standard in .38 Special as well.
To create the FBI’s .38 Special Hydra-Shok duty load, Federal loaded one of their 9mm, 147 grain Hydra-Shok bullets in a .38 Special case at +P+ pressures, to generate about 950 fps out of a 3” Model 13 revolver. Even though this 9mm bullet was only 0.355 inches in diameter, the accuracy was good enough to meet FBI standards in their .357 caliber revolvers. The Federal 147 grain, .38 Special +P+ Hydra-Shok replaced the legendary, 158 grain, .38 Special +P lead semi-wadcutter hollowpoint (LSWCHP) that was originally designed for Saint Louis PD, but later popularized as the “FBI Load,” and served until the FBI formally retired its revolvers in the 1990s.
The special production, 147 +P+ Hydra-Shok disappeared from the Federal catalog shortly thereafter, but Federal still continued to build two versions of the .38 Special Hydra-Shok for consumers. The first of these .38 Special Hydra-Shoks is a full-power, 129 grain load at a published muzzle velocity of 950 fps, and the other is a 110 grain, low-recoil load at a published muzzle velocity of 980 fps. While these have been good performers, neither can reliably reach 12 inches in bare and heavy clothing gelatin after expansion, as a growing number of consumers have demanded.
The very new Hydra-Shok
All of which brings us back to the present task of applying the Deep “magic” to this venerable favorite.
The new Hydra-Shok Deep bullet shares the concept of using a central post to redirect fluid pressure inside the hollowpoint cavity, but aside from that, it has very little in common with the Hydra-Shok bullet of old. The Federal engineers who built this bullet clearly weren’t constrained by the previous design in any way, and had freedom of movement to change all aspects of the bullet—design, shape, weight, materials, hardness, skiving . . . the whole works. When I asked Federal’s Chris Laack why the 130 grain weight was chosen for this bullet, for example, he simply replied, “because that’s the bullet weight that worked best in our testing—we didn’t plan it that way, we just settled on it, based on what we discovered.”
Only the objective remained inflexible: Build a bullet that will achieve 12-plus inches of bare and heavy clothing gelatin penetration, while opening up to 1.5 times the diameter (or as close as you can get, without sacrificing penetration).
Simple, but not easy.
Our tour of the new Hydra-Shok Deep starts with the most visible difference of the new bullet, the folded jacket design.
The folded jacket gives the new Hydra-Shok Deep a very unusual appearance, and is a critical element of the new design. Unlike the old Hydra-Shok, the jacket is not simply a cover for the lead core of the bullet. Instead, the jacket is the primary structure in the forward section of the bullet—most of what you see exposed beyond the shoulder of the case is nothing but jacket.
In the old Hydra-Shok, the lead core ran all the way to the mouth of the bullet, and the jacket just wrapped around it, but in the new Hydra-Shok Deep, the lead core only climbs the walls a little bit before it runs out, and all that’s left is jacket material to complete the pointed shape of the bullet and create the mouth of the cartridge.
This heavy copper jacket (which is reminiscent of the scored jacket concept used in Burczynski’s earliest HST prototypes) is what does most of the bullet’s mushrooming. When the new Hydra-Shok Deep strikes the target, fluid forces are redirected by the central post to begin unfolding the jacket and expanding the bullet. Since the copper jacket is skived, it opens up along those fault lines into a series of eight petals (in the .380 ACP and .38 Special bullets—other calibers have different numbers, such as the 9mm, which has six) that expand, then fold back, to form the mushroom.
The short section of lead core that extends up the inside of the cavity walls stops near the bottom of the bullet’s cavity. This lead ring will mushroom as well, and curl over the base of the expanded petals, at the bottom of the cavity. This lead mushroom is much smaller than the copper jacket mushroom, but it serves an important purpose, to protect the integrity of the expanded jacket. The lead ring at the bottom of the cavity prevents too much energy from acting on the base of the copper petals, which in turn prevents them from over-expanding and separating from the projectile—it’s basically a shield for the base of the jacket.
We mentioned the central post briefly, but didn’t explain how it differs in the new design. In the old bullet, the post was a slightly-tapered cylinder, with a hemispherical tip. It was quite thin, looking a bit like a section of pencil lead with a rounded tip, sticking up in the center of a relatively small, cylindrical cavity. This narrow post served to slow the rate of expansion, to allow the bullet to reach adequate penetration depths, and also simplified production, because the reduced surface area (compared to a larger post) decreases drag, and allows the bullet to be stripped off the punch more easily.
On the new Deep bullet, the post is conical and very large. Its base is very broad, and looks to be about four to five times the diameter of the tip, which sits appreciably below the mouth of the cavity. As Burczynski noted in his original development of the Hydra-Shok, a conical post is much more efficient at redirecting the fluid in the cavity, and it appears that Federal is taking advantage of that, to help open the heavy copper jacket on this new bullet quite rapidly.
Assisting that rapid expansion is the larger mouth on the Hydra-Shok Deep. The folded jacket design increases the surface area of the cavity mouth, and allows fluid pressure to build more rapidly in the (comparatively) much larger cavity of the new bullet. Interestingly, while the new Deep bullet has a larger mouth, the folded jacket and conical post design do a better job of preventing the cavity from becoming plugged with clothing fibers or other material (such as drywall—a real hollowpoint killer in FBI protocol testing).
Since the Hydra-Shok Deep is mostly comprised of copper jacket near the tip, the bullet’s overall length is longer than comparable 130 grain bullets of traditional manufacture, where the lead core reaches the cavity mouth.
The core and jacket in the Hydra-Shok Deep are mechanically bonded, and the bullet features a pair of cannelures that help to lock the components together and keep them from jumping the case crimp under recoil. The mechanical bonding of the Hydra-Shok Deep will prevent the core-jacket separation that can reduce penetration, by virtue of the energy loss that comes with shedding mass.
The jacket thickness and hardness are specially tailored, along with all the other elements of this bullet, to “program” the bullet’s expansion. When a Deep bullet expands, the petals fold back to a point that they’re parallel to the shank of the bullet, but the tips don’t contact the shank itself. It takes a lot of work to design the petals to bend this far, but no more.
If you compared an expanded Deep bullet to an expanded HST bullet, you might be tempted to think it’s a shame the Deep petals bend past 90 degrees, instead of remaining roughly perpendicular to the bullet’s shank, as they are on the HST. There’s no doubt the HST’s traditional, “starfish” expansion pattern is impressive, but it’s that large surface area which acts like a drag chute, and prevents the HST from penetrating further. The Deep’s petals fold back more, which gives the bullet a smaller cross-section when expanded, but the decreased drag allows the bullet to use its energy for deeper penetration, and sail past the HST in the target.
The Deep bullet looks unique when it’s expanded, sort of like a sunflower, or a lead sombrero perched atop a bird bath. Fortunately, it’s performance is unique as well.
When fired from the 1.875” barrel of a snubby revolver, the 130 grain, .38 Special Deep bullet clocks about 800 feet per second at the muzzle, as a result of careful powder selection. According to Federal’s Chris Laack, this energy allows the bullet to penetrate 13.2 inches of bare ballistic gelatin, and expand to 0.551 inches (1.54 times it’s starting diameter), according to Federal’s numbers. In FBI-standard Heavy Clothing, the bullet is said to penetrate 13.4 inches and expand to 0.548 inches (1.53 times it’s starting diameter) from the same, short barrel.
I’ve fired the .380 ACP version of the Deep on paper, but have been unable to test any of the Deep bullets in gelatin yet. However, I’ve worked with Chris before on a project, and respect and trust him very much, so I’m confident in his numbers. Looking at the supplied .38 Hydra-Shok Deep data, I have to say this is extraordinary performance from a snubby revolver. As we previously discussed in these pages, most .38 Special and .38 Special +P loads struggle to get beyond 9 inches of penetration in those test mediums, with only a select few going as deep as 11 inches, but the .38 Special +P Hydra-Shok Deep does it regularly, while expanding to over 1.5 times the original diameter. This is really super, and it represents a new benchmark for this legendary chambering.
Importantly, the .38 Special +P Hydra-Shok Deep performs very well from a service-size gun, as well. From a 4-inch barrel, Chris says the load clocks about 900 feet per second at the muzzle and penetrates 14.6 inches of bare gelatin while expanding to 0.584 inches, according to Federal. In FBI-standard Heavy Clothing, the bullet reportedly penetrates 16.1 inches and expands to 0.562 inches.
Sometimes engineers are forced to make choices that actually decrease performance out of a longer barrel, to ensure a bullet will work well at the lower velocities encountered in shorter barrels, but the Hydra-Shok Deep bullets seem rather indifferent to velocity changes and work very well in anything you chamber them in. As a matter of fact, Federal engineers have tested the 9mm Hydra-Shok Deep in a 16-inch carbine, and found that the bullet performs nearly the same as when it’s fired in a 3-inch pistol barrel, achieving the same expansion, and about 0.75 inches more penetration. This is really amazing consistency from a handgun bullet.
This performance puts the .38 Special +P Hydra-Shok Deep in a unique position in the market. There really isn’t another hollowpoint bullet out there which reliably goes beyond 12 inches in gelatin, with good, consistent expansion, when it’s fired from a snubby revolver.
There are other .38 Special bullets which expand better than the Hydra-Shok Deep, such as Federal’s HST, but none that travel as far in the target. The Deep’s closest competitor is probably the excellent, 135 grain, .38 Special +P Speer Gold Dot Short Barrel, which expands equally as well, but still penetrates about an inch less than the Deep in both bare and heavy clothing gelatin. As a bonded bullet, the Gold Dot may have some advantages against other barriers, like steel or glass, but in the arena it was designed for, the Hydra-Shok Deep should rule the roost.
The best part for us RevolverGuys is that we now have a choice. We previously had bullets that could expand nicely (like the HST), just as we had bullets that could penetrate (like the wadcutter). On balance though, the market was skewed towards expansion. Now, with the Hydra-Shok Deep, a shooter that wants to tilt the scale in favor of penetration, without giving up reasonable expansion, has a dog in the fight.
A closing word
As this article goes to press, we’re deep in the middle of the worst ammunition crisis any of us can remember—perhaps since World War II. The demand for ammunition is at record levels, as a function of political instability, security concerns, a skyrocketing population of buyers which grew by an estimated 9 million in 2020 alone, and a global pandemic that has interrupted the supply of raw materials used by ammunition manufacturers, and had meaningful impacts on the labor force they rely on to make the product.
It’s tough to find ammunition right now, and I know a lot of RevolverGuys are frustrated by the lack of availability. Please don’t think we’re tone deaf to the situation, by running an article on the latest and greatest ammo product from Federal! We feel your pain, too. We don’t have any ammo sponsors here at RevolverGuy, after all. Every round that gets fired in support of a RevolverGuy article comes out of our own stash, and our own pocket. We’re just as concerned as you are about our ability to replace what we shoot, or find new products that we want to try out.
Rest assured that manufacturers like Federal (and their sister companies under the ATK umbrella, Speer and Remington) are working 24/7 to produce ammunition, pushing machines and employees to their limit. They are actually making more ammunition than ever before, and are aggressively getting it to the market. The problem is, there’s just a lot more people chasing the product, and they’re buying a lot more of it than they did in the past.
Federal has already made a bunch of .38 Special +P Hydra-Shok Deep, and they will continue to make more, as quickly as they can. You may have to wait a while–or just get lucky in your timing–to find it, but I think you’ll find it will be worth the wait.
Good luck on the search, and be safe out there!
RevolverGuy would like to thank the following individuals for their invaluable assistance with this article: Tom Burczynski (creator of the Hydra-Shok, and industry consultant), Chris Laack (Federal Centerfire Handgun Product Manager), Evan Marshall (Detroit PD, Retired, world-class law enforcement trainer, purveyor of StoppingPower.net, and author of the books Handgun Stopping Power, Street Stoppers, and Stopping Power), and JJ Reich (Communications Manager, Firearms and Ammunition , Vista Outdoor). Thank you gentlemen, for your contributions!